The Economist: How are Europe’s philanthropists measuring up?

Philanthropic organisations are increasingly measuring the impact of their programmes, a culture that has been adopted by private-sector entrants in this space. How are Europe’s philanthropists measuring up?
Across Europe, philanthropic measurement begins with a “theory of change”. “You need a theory for why you are doing what you are doing, and how it leads to better outcomes,” says Andy Martin, the founder of Firetail, a UK-based firm that advises clients on ways to promote causes and communities.